It has been mentioned in historical documents that hazelnut was produced 2300 years ago in the Black Sea coast on the north of Turkey and it is known that hazelnut has been exported from Turkey to other countries for the last 6 centuries. Turkey, which is one of the few countries in the world with favourable weather conditions for hazelnut production, accounts for 75% of the global production and 70-75% of the exportation.
Hazelnut fields, widely spread in the Black Sea coasts of Turkey, have been located within 30 km from the coast towards inland. In the western Black Sea, it starts from Zonguldak (east of stanbul) and extends to the east over the entire Black Sea like a green strip lying between the sea and the mountains almost until the Georgian boundary. 4.000.000 people are directly or indirectly related to hazelnut which has been produced on an area of 550-600 thousand hectares in Turkey, which is a fact that boosts the socio-economic importance of hazelnut. Turkey has a distinguished place among the other hazelnut producers in the world, thanks to its high quality, and maintains its leading position in production and exportation.


Hazelnut tree, which grows in 36 - 41 northern latitudes and under special climate conditions, yields product within 30 km from the coast and at an altitude of maximum 750-1000 metres.

In Turkey, the regions where hazelnut is grown can be divided into two sub-regions:
a) 1. Standard Region (eastern part of the Black Sea Region): Ordu, Giresun, Rize, Trabzon and Artvin provinces.
b) 2. Standard Region (middle and western part of the Black Sea Region): Samsun, Sinop, Kastamonu, Bolu, Dzce, Sakarya, Zonguldak and Kocaeli provinces.


Turkish hazelnut generally grows ripe between the beginning and the end of August, depending on the latitude of the field. Timely harvest is done by picking up the hazelnuts with leaves that fall to ground when the branches are shaken off. Another method of harvesting is the one where the hazelnuts are picked one by one from the branches. After being collected from the fields, hazelnuts are blended on the same day or a few days later depending on the field status and laid to make a bed of 10-15 cm thickness to be pre-dried under the sun until their leaves turn brown. After drying, hazelnuts are separated from their leaves using harvesting machine (thresher) and laid over canopies in thin layers to be dried under the sun. Total period of drying, including the pre-drying, can be maximum 15-20 days depending on the weather conditions. Drying naturally and under the sun is an important factor that gives the Turkish hazelnut its special taste.


Besides being consumed as snack both in Turkey and in the world, about 90% of hazelnuts are used in roasted, whitened, minced, sliced, powder and puree form as a side-ingredient in chocolate, biscuit, confectionary industry, in making sweets, pastries and ice-cream and in meals and salads.

With a background of about five thousand years, hazelnut has great benefits for humankind through many ways such as its fruit and wood. Hazelnut shell is used as a very valuable and high calorie fuel particularly in hazelnut growing areas in our country.

Furthermore, hazelnut wood is used in making baskets, walking sticks, chairs, fences and hand tools. Some types of hazelnut are grown as decorative plants in parks and gardens. Hazelnut leaves and fruit leaves are used as fertilizer. Hazelnut oil is made from the excess amount of hazelnut. Crude hazelnut oil is refined to be used in meals and hazelnut pulp is used as additive in the animal food industry.


Currently, there are 180 breaking plants with an internal capacity of 1.800.000 tons per annum and 40 processing plants with an internal capacity of 350.000 tons per annum in our country. In 1970?s, 90% of our hazelnut export was in the form of hazelnuts with shell and natural hazelnut seeds but with the positive and fast developments in hazelnut processing industry, processed hazelnut exports started to account for 30% of our total exports in 2000.
In parallel to the complete fulfilment of buyers? requirements with the effective and careful quality control systems in every phase of production, particularly processed hazelnut seed exports are increasing every year. The processed hazelnuts prepared in our country have higher quality than the processed hazelnuts prepared by many exporters-manufacturers in their own plants by purchasing natural hazelnuts. Please find attached the minimum analyses performed by quality assurance departments as part of HACCP in the processed hazelnut seed production by both public and private sector.

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the hazelnut is the nut of the hazel and therefore includes any of the nuts deriving from species of the genus Corylus, especially the nuts of the species Corylus avellana. It also is known as cobnut or filbert nut according to species.[1] A cob is roughly spherical to oval, about 1525 mm (0.590.98 in) long and 1015 mm (0.390.59 in) in diameter, with an outer fibrous husk surrounding a smooth shell. A filbert is more elongated, being about twice as long as its diameter. The nut falls out of the husk when ripe, about 7 to 8 months after pollination. The kernel of the seed is edible and used raw or roasted, or ground into a paste. The seed has a thin, dark brown skin, which sometimes is removed before cooking.

Hazelnuts are used in confectionery to make praline, and also used in combination with chocolate for chocolate truffles and products such as Nutella and Frangelico liqueur. Hazelnut oil, pressed from hazelnuts, is strongly flavoured and used as a cooking oil. Turkey is the world's largest producer of hazelnuts.

Hazelnuts are rich in protein, monounsaturated fat, vitamin E, manganese, and numerous other essential nutrients (nutrition table below).[2]

Contents  [hide]
1    History
2    Cultivars
3    Harvesting
4    Production
5    Nutrients
6    Edible uses
7    See also
8    References
9    External links
In 1995, evidence of large-scale Mesolithic nut processing, some 9,000 years old, was found in a midden pit on the island of Colonsay in Scotland. The evidence consists of a large, shallow pit full of the remains of hundreds of thousands of burned hazelnut shells. Hazelnuts have been found on other Mesolithic sites, but rarely in such quantities or concentrated in one pit. The nuts were radiocarbon dated to 7720+/-110BP, which calibrates to circa 6000 BC. Similar sites in Britain are known only at Farnham in Surrey and Cass ny Hawin on the Isle of Man.[3][4]

This discovery gives an insight into communal activity and planning in the period. The nuts were harvested in a single year, and pollen analysis suggests the hazel trees were all cut down at the same time.[4] The scale of the activity and the lack of large game on the island, suggest the possibility that Colonsay contained a community with a largely vegetarian diet for the time they spent on the island. The pit was originally on a beach close to the shore, and was associated with two smaller, stone-lined pits whose function remains obscure, a hearth, and a second cluster of pits.[3]

The traditional method to increase nut production is called 'brutting', which involves prompting more of the trees' energy to go into flower bud production, by snapping, but not breaking off, the tips of the new year shoots' six or seven leaf groups from where they join with the trunk or branch, at the end of the growing season.[citation needed] The traditional term for an area of cultivated hazelnuts is a plat.

The many cultivars of the hazel include 'Atababa', 'Barcelona', 'Butler', 'Casina', 'Clark', 'Cosford', 'Daviana', 'Delle Langhe', 'England', 'Ennis', 'Fillbert', 'Halls Giant', 'Jemtegaard', 'Kent Cob', 'Lewis', 'Tokolyi', 'Tonda Gentile', 'Tonda di Giffoni', 'Tonda Romana', 'Wanliss Pride', and 'Willamette'.[5] Some of these are grown for specific qualities of the nut, including large nut size, or early or late fruiting, whereas others are grown as pollinators. The majority of commercial hazelnuts are propagated from root sprouts.[5] Some cultivars are of hybrid origin between common hazel and filbert.[6] One cultivar grown in Washington, the 'DuChilly', has an elongated appearance, a thinner and less bitter skin, and a distinctly sweeter flavor than other varieties.[7][8]

Production of hazelnuts in 2014[9]
Country    Production
thousands of tonnes
United States   
Hazelnuts or filberts, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g
Energy    2,629 kJ (628 kcal)
16.70 g
Sugars    4.34 g
Dietary fiber    9.7 g
60.75 g
14.95 g
Vitamin A equiv.
lutein zeaxanthin
(0%) 1 g
(0%) 11 g
92 g
Thiamine (B1)    (56%) 0.643 mg
Riboflavin (B2)    (9%) 0.113 mg
Niacin (B3)    (12%) 1.8 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)    (18%) 0.918 mg
Vitamin B6    (43%) 0.563 mg
Folate (B9)    (28%) 113 g
Vitamin C    (8%) 6.3 mg
Vitamin E    (100%) 15.03 mg
Vitamin K    (14%) 14.2 g
Calcium    (11%) 114 mg
Iron    (36%) 4.7 mg
Magnesium    (46%) 163 mg
Manganese    (294%) 6.175 mg
Phosphorus    (41%) 290 mg
Potassium    (14%) 680 mg
Selenium    (3%) 2.4 g
Sodium    (0%) 0 mg
Zinc    (26%) 2.45 mg
Other constituents
Water    5.31 g
Full Link to complete USDA Database entry
g = micrograms mg = milligrams
IU = International units
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Hazelnuts are harvested annually in mid-autumn. As autumn comes to a close, the trees drop their nuts and leaves. Most commercial growers wait for the nuts to drop on their own, rather than using equipment to shake them from the tree. The harvesting of hazelnuts is performed either by hand or, by manual or mechanical raking of fallen nuts.

Four primary pieces of equipment are used in commercial harvesting: the sweeper, the harvester, the nut cart, and the forklift. The sweeper moves the nuts into the center of the rows, the harvester lifts and separates the nuts from any debris (i.e. twigs and leaves), the nut cart holds the nuts picked up by the harvester, and the forklift brings a tote to offload the nuts from the nut cart and then, stacks the totes to be shipped to the processor (nut dryer).

The sweeper is a low-to-the-ground machine that makes two passes in each tree row. It has a 2 m (6 ft 7 in) belt attached to the front that rotates to sweep leaves, nuts, and small twigs from left to right, depositing the material in the center of the row as it drives forward. On the rear of the sweeper is a powerful blower to blow material left into the adjacent row with air speeds up to 90 m/s (300 ft/s). Careful grooming during the year and patient blowing at harvest may eliminate the need for hand raking around the trunk of the tree, where nuts may accumulate. The sweeper prepares a single center row of nuts narrow enough for the harvesting tractor to drive over without driving on the center row. It is best to sweep only a few rows ahead of the harvesters at any given time, to prevent the tractor that drives the harvester from crushing the nuts that may still be falling from the trees. Hazelnut orchards may be harvested up to three times during the harvest season, depending on the quantity of nuts in the trees and the rate of nut drop as a result of weather.[10]

The harvester is a slow-moving machine pushed by a tractor, which lifts the material off the ground and separates the nuts from the leaves, empty husks, and twigs. As the harvester drives over the rows, a rotating cylinder with hundreds of tines, rakes the material onto a belt. The belt takes the material over a blower and under a powerful vacuum that sucks any lightweight soil and leaves from the nuts, and discharges them into the orchard. The remaining nuts are conveyed into a nut cart that is pulled behind the harvester. Once a tote is filled with nuts, the forklift hauls away the full totes and bring empty ones back to the harvester to maximize the harvester's time.

Two different timing strategies are used for collecting the fallen nuts. The first is to harvest early, when about half of the nuts have fallen. With less material on the ground, the harvester can work faster with less chance of a breakdown. The second option is to wait for all the nuts to fall before harvesting. Although the first option is considered the better of the two,[11] two or three passes do take more time to complete than one. Weather also must be a consideration. Rain inhibits harvest and should a farmer wait for all the nuts to fall after a rainy season, it becomes much more difficult to harvest. Pickup also varies with how many acres are being farmed as well as the number of sweepers, harvesters, nut carts, and forklifts available.

In 2014, world production of hazelnuts (in shells) was 713,451 tonnes, a 17% decrease from 2013.[9] Turkey produced 63% of the world total, followed by Italy, Georgia, the United States, and Azerbaijan (table).

In the United States, Oregon accounted for 99% of the nation's production in 2014, having a crop value of $129 million that is purchased mainly by the snack food industry.[12]

In a 100-gram serving, raw hazelnuts supply 2,630 kilojoules (628 kcal) and are a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of numerous essential nutrients (see table). Particularly in high amounts are protein, dietary fiber, vitamin E, thiamin, phosphorus, manganese, and magnesium, all exceeding 30% DV (table). Several B vitamins have appreciable content. In lesser, but still significant amounts (moderate content, 10-19% DV), are vitamin K, calcium, zinc, and potassium (table). Hazelnuts are a significant source of total fat, accounting for 93% DV in a 100-gram serving. The fat components are monounsaturated fat as oleic acid (75% of total), polyunsaturated fat mainly as linoleic acid (13% of total), and saturated fat, mainly as palmitic acid and stearic acid (together, 7% of total).[2]

Edible uses[edit]

Piccillatti, typical biscuits made with hazelnuts, Sicily
Ferrero SpA, the maker of Nutella and Ferrero Rocher, uses 25% of the global supply of hazelnuts.[13] Hazelnuts are used in confections to make pralines, chocolate truffles, and hazelnut paste products. In Austria, hazelnut paste is an ingredient for making tortes, such as Viennese hazelnut torte. In Kiev cake, hazelnut flour is used to flavor its meringue body, and crushed hazelnuts are sprinkled over its sides. Dacquoise, a French dessert cake, often contains a layer of hazelnut meringue. Hazelnuts are used in Turkish cuisine and Georgian cuisine; the snack churchkhela and sauce satsivi are used, often with walnuts. The nuts may be eaten fresh or dried, having different flavors.[14]

See also[edit]
Filbertone, the principal flavor compound of hazelnuts
List of hazelnut diseases
The Hazel-nut Child
Jump up ^ Martins, S.; SimAues, F.; Matos, J.; Silva, A. P.; Carnide, V. (2014). "Genetic relationship among wild, landraces, and cultivars of hazelnut (Corylus avellana) from Portugal revealed through ISSR and AFLP markers". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 300 (5): 10351046. doi:10.1007/s00606-013-0942-3.
^ Jump up to: a b "Full Report (All Nutrients): 12120, Nuts, hazelnuts or filberts". USDA National Nutrient Database, version SR-27. 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
^ Jump up to: a b "Mesolithic food industry on Colonsay" Dec 1995) British Archaeology. No. 5. Retrieved 25 May 2008.
^ Jump up to: a b Moffat, Alistair (2005) Before Scotland: The Story of Scotland Before History. London. Thames & Hudson. p. 912.
^ Jump up to: a b Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
Jump up ^ Flora of NW Europe: Corylus avellana Archived 2008-05-02 at the Wayback Machine.
Jump up ^ "No Ordinary Nut", Deborah Madison, Los Angeles Times, Jan 31, 2001
Jump up ^ "Neat and Sweet, But an Odd Nut", Melissa Clark, New York Times, Jan 16, 2002
^ Jump up to: a b "Hazelnuts (with shell); Crops by Region, World List, Production Quantity, 2014". UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT). 2017. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
Jump up ^ "Hazelnuts in Ontario Growing, Harvesting and Food Safety". gov.on.ca.
Jump up ^ "Fndk". Yeni Ansiklopedi (in Turkish). January 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-01-04. Retrieved 2017-12-15.
Jump up ^ "Hazelnuts". Ag Marketing Resource Center, Iowa State University, Ames, IA. August 2015. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
Jump up ^ Narula, Svati Kirsten (14 August 2014). "A frost in Turkey may drive up the price of your Nutella". Quartz (publication). Atlantic Media.
Jump up ^ Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall (8 September 2007). "Nuts, whole hazelnuts". The Guardian.
External links[edit]
    Wikimedia Commons has media related to Corylus avellana.
The dictionary definition of hazelnut at Wiktionary
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Global Trade Wholesale Raw Hazelnut in Shell
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Turkey produces 75 per cent of the world's hazelnuts.Hazelnut prices have surged almost 10 per cent in the past two weeks after the Turkish government intervened to support the market for the first time in eight years.
Hazelnut prices have been volatile over the past few years largely due to the weather. The market had weakened for much of 2017, dropping 10 per cent to a low of TL21.5 ($5.99) a kilogramme just before last months referendum.
What Are the Health Benefits of Hazelnuts?
Hazelnut prices
Hazelnut prices soar after Turkish intervention